Elective evaluation is Pass or Fail only, based on student’s performance throughout the elective.
Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine
Anesthesiology is taught during the clerkship in Surgery and consists of theoretical and practical Instruction.
Students are taught the theory and practice of clinical anesthesia, including pre-operative assessment and postanesthetic care. They learn the fundamentals of intensive care and critical care medicine. A course of lectures covers the following topics:
- pre-operative assessment and preparation of the patient for surgery
- pharmacology of inhalational, intravenous and regional drugs used during anesthesia
- techniques of general and regional anesthesia
- anesthetic equipment, including methods of artificial ventilation and system monitoring
- fluid, electrolyte and acid-balance
- postanesthetic complications
- treatment of shock
- control of acute and chronic pain.
Practical instruction is given to small groups of two to four students who attend operations and are introduced to the practical skills such as insertion of intravenous infusions, induction of anesthesia, intubation, maintenance of anesthesia, and the monitoring of vital functions during anesthesia and surgery. Further practical instruction is carried out in the post-operative recovery area and the general intensive care unit.
The students learn methods of diagnosis and management of the unconscious patient, respiratory complications such as atelectasis, pneumonia and ARDS, and the diagnosis and management of shock. The basic aspects of cardio-pulmonary resuscitation are discussed and illustrated.
An elective in Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine is offered in the fourth year.
The studies in cardiology are designed to acquaint the student with the fundamental approach to the diagnosis and treatment of patients with cardiac conditions. The program is taught in the Introduction to Medicine course and the Internal Medicine, Surgery and Pediatrics clerkships.
During Introduction to Medicine, students learn the pathophysiology, etiology, functional and clinical symptomatology, diagnosis, differential diagnosis and treatment of: heart failure, rheumatic heart disease, disease of the pericardium, disease of the myocardiumcardiomyopathies, cor-pulmonale and pulmonary emboli, and ischemic heart disease. Cardiovascular clinical pharmacology is also studied.
During the cardiology clerkship, the following topics are covered:
- clinical electrocardiography
- clinical and hemodynamic aspects of acute and chronic ischemic heart disease
- evaluation and management of rheumatic heart disease
- diseases of the pericardium and myocardium
- pacemakers – indications and follow-up
- clinical pharmacology of cardiovascular drugs
- introduction to noninvasive methods of cardiology
- cardiac catheterization and coronary angiography
- assessment and follow-up of ambulatory cardiac patients
- primary and secondary prevention of coronary artery disease.
The contribution of the different diagnostic procedures available in cardiology and the different therapeutic approaches are emphasized.
Students participate actively in bedside teaching, as well as in the invasive and noninvasive diagnostic laboratories.
The elective in dermatology is of three to four weeks duration and takes place in the three departments affiliated with the Sackler Faculty of Medicine.
During the elective period, the students participate in all the routine activities of the department and the outpatient clinic. Thus, they are exposed to both the daily routine dermatological problems including diagnostic procedures, differential diagnosis, discussion, and treatment. In addition, in the department, the complicated serious problems of dermatology are observed. Emphasis is placed on active participation in specific diagnostic methods (histopathology and mycology allergic tests) and in special common dermatological problems (tumor clinic, photobiology unit, and dermatological surgery).
Participation in the academic activities of the department journal club, clinicopathological meetings and update lectures is required. If the student wishes, he or she is invited to participate in a research project during his or her stay.
By virtue of the inter-disciplinary role of this division, staff participate in the teaching of anatomy and clinical specialties in conjunction with other faculty staff.
During the course in Anatomy, the division teaches diagnostic imaging as a tool in the study of living anatomy, as well as demonstrating to the student the importance and relevance of the subject in daily medical practice.
In the lectures in Introduction to Medicine, the main pathological processes are demonstrated, as seen by the various radiological modalities. Teaching includes the most modern imaging modalities, such as Computed Tomography with Spiral CT and fast reconstruction, ultrasound and the various branches of Nuclear Medicine. In addition, students are introduced to Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Magnetic Imaging Treatment that open a new window in the area of Radiology and Surgery. All these new modalities are taught without neglecting radiology techniques.
During their clinical clerkships, students attend lectures as well as day-to-day, informal teaching by means of daily conferences and ward rounds with the clinician and radiologist.
The staff participate in teaching Introduction to Medicine, and the Internal Medicine and Pediatric clerkships.
In Introduction to Medicine, lectures cover the following topics: hematopoiesis and growth factors, approach to the diagnosis of anemia, including the clinical evaluation and kinetics of normal red blood cell production and destruction; iron deficiency anemia; megaloblastic anemia; hemolytic anemia; and aplastic anemia. The study of the white cells includes: leukemias, acute and chronic; myeloproliferative disorders, myelodysplasia; lymphomas; multiple myeloma and other monoclonal gammopathies. The hemostatic process and its disturbances are also covered.
During the Internal Medicine clerkship, students learn the indications for the different hematologic procedures and interpretation of results. Seminars conducted during the Internal Medicine and Pediatrics clerkships are prepared by staff and students and consist of small group discussions on the hematological aspects of patients seen by the students on the wards. Each group of students spends at least one morning in the outpatient hematology clinic.
An elective is offered in hematology in the fourth year. Students participate in all the activities of the department.
Students participate in lectures and seminars on modern anti-cancer therapeutic modalities, including radiation, chemotherapy and immunotherapy. Introductory lectures on the pharmacology and action of cytotoxic drugs and their use and methods of delivery are given, with an emphasis on the importance of monitoring of patients.
Methods of early detection of recurrence such as tumor markers and recent results on the use of biological response modifiers are presented, along with the more practical protocols used in oncology.
The students will participate on the Tumor Boards in conjunction with the Departments of Hematology, Gastroenterology, Gynecology, Urology, Neurosurgery, Surgery, Internal Medicine, Lung Clinic, and Plastic Surgery.
Orthopedics and Traumatology
The elective clerkship in orthopedics and traumatology is given in the fourth year
after students have completed the clerkships in Medicine and Surgery and have acquired the basis needed for this clerkship.
The elective involves lectures, bedside and outpatient clinic teaching, participation in the operating theater and emergency room activities, as well as involvement in the departmental activities. Emphasis is placed upon basic understanding of orthopedics and traumatology as required by a general practitioner. An introductory course of lectures covers clinical pathology, including:
- congenital and developmental anomalies
- metabolic and malignant conditions affecting the musculoskeletal system
- low back pain
- high and low energy injuries
- sport injuries
- fractures and dislocations
affecting the pediatric, adult and geriatric patients.
The students master the essentials of physical examination; are taught to analyze x-rays and other imaging modalities such as CT and MRI, and learn to describe and diagnose pathological conditions.
Students join residents on-call and are instructed in applying plaster of paris, reduction of fractures and dislocations, as well as the work-up of multi-system injuries.
This elective clerkship is taught in the fourth year. The teaching program gives the students the knowledge in the field required by a general practitioner.
Clerkship activities consist of practical work and bedside teaching, seminars, physical examinations of patients, practicum in audiology, nystagmographic technique, and speech therapy. Students participate in the routine work of the departments, out-patient clinics and operating theaters.
An introductory course of lectures covers clinical pathology of the ears, including:
- problems of hearing and equilibrium
- common nasal pathology such as nasal obstruction and epistaxis
- basic knowledge of tumors of head and neck, pharynx and larynx
- basic principles of emergency surgical procedures such as tracheotomy and removal of foreign bodies.
Students are taught to diagnose and treat simple common conditions and to know when to refer more complicated cases to the specialist. They learn to take a case history and conduct a clinical examination. They also learn to perform routine functions that require no special instrumentation and are usually done by a general practitioner, including: paracentesis, treatment of peritonsillar abscess, management of nose-bleeding (anterior/posterior tamponade), management of closed fracture of nasal bones, management of respiratory distress, and treatment of otitis.
Teaching in the elective clerkship in rehabilitation is designed to acquaint students with physical and rehabilitative medicine as an area of specialization, and to provide them with the basic knowledge and principles of rehabilitation that will be required in whatever specialty they choose to pursue.
Students may choose an elective in rehabilitation in the fourth year. The curriculum includes seminars, bedside teaching and demonstrations in the various teaching departments. The students receive instruction in the units of occupational therapy, physiotherapy and vocational assessment, and in the orthotic-prosthetic workshop.
The seminars and clinical demonstrations cover the following subjects on the amputee: stump care, prosthetic fitting and long- term care, gait training; cranio-cerebral injury; cerebrovascular accident; spinal cord injury; cardio-respiratory rehabilitation; special problems in rehabilitation; communication problems in rehabilitation; sexual problems in rehabilitation; electromyography, and better electrodiagnosis.
In addition to bedside clinical work, students take part in out-patient clinics.